Skeletal Muscle MicroRNA Patterns in Response to a Single Bout of Exercise in Females: Biomarkers for Subsequent Training Adaptation?
microRNAs (miRs) have been proposed as a promising new class of biomarkers in the context of training adaptation. Using microarray analysis, we studied skeletal muscle miR patterns in sedentary young healthy females ( n = 6) before and after a single submaximal bout of endurance exercise (‘reference training’). Subsequently, participants were subjected to a structured training program, consisting of six weeks of moderate-intensity continuous endurance training (MICT) and six weeks of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in randomized order. In vastus lateralis muscle, we found significant downregulation of myomiRs, specifically miR-1, 133a-3p, and -5p, -133b, and -499a-5p. Similarly, exercise-associated miRs-23a-3p, -378a-5p, -128-3p, -21-5p, -107, -27a-3p, -126-3p, and -152-3p were significantly downregulated, whereas miR-23a-5p was upregulated. Furthermore, in an untargeted approach for differential expression in response to acute exercise, we identified n = 35 miRs that were downregulated and n = 20 miRs that were upregulated by factor 4.5 or more. Remarkably, KEGG pathway analysis indicated central involvement of this set of miRs in fatty acid metabolism. To reproduce these data in a larger cohort of all-female subjects ( n = 29), qPCR analysis was carried out on n = 15 miRs selected from the microarray, which confirmed their differential expression. Furthermore, the acute response, i.e., the difference between miR concentrations before and after the reference training, was correlated with changes in maximum oxygen uptake (V̇O 2 max) in response to the training program. Here, we found that miRs-199a-3p and -19b-3p might be suitable acute-response candidates that correlate with individual degrees of training adaptation in females.