Effects on Bone and Muscle upon Treadmill Interval Training in Hypogonadal Male Rats
Testosterone deficiency in males is linked to various pathological conditions, including muscle and bone loss. This study evaluated the potential of different training modalities to counteract these losses in hypogonadal male rats. A total of 54 male Wistar rats underwent either castration (ORX, n = 18) or sham castration ( n = 18), with 18 castrated rats engaging in uphill, level, or downhill interval treadmill training. Analyses were conducted at 4, 8, and 12 weeks postsurgery. Muscle force of the soleus muscle, muscle tissue samples, and bone characteristics were analyzed. No significant differences were observed in cortical bone characteristics. Castrated rats experienced decreased trabecular bone mineral density compared to sham-operated rats. However, 12 weeks of training increased trabecular bone mineral density, with no significant differences among groups. Muscle force measurements revealed decreased tetanic force in castrated rats at week 12, while uphill and downhill interval training restored force to sham group levels and led to muscle hypertrophy compared to ORX animals. Linear regression analyses showed a positive correlation between bone biomechanical characteristics and muscle force. The findings suggest that running exercise can prevent bone loss in osteoporosis, with similar bone restoration effects observed across different training modalities.