Pharmacological impact of microRNAs in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: Prevailing insights on molecular pathways, diagnosis, and nanomedicine treatment
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma is a disease that most commonly produce tumours from the lining of the epithelial cells of the lips, larynx, nasopharynx, mouth, or oro-pharynx. It is one of the most deadly forms of cancer. About one to two percent of all neo-plasm-related deaths are attributed to head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, which is responsible for about six percent of all cancers. MicroRNAs play a critical role in cell proliferation, differentiation, tumorigenesis, stress response, triggering apoptosis, and other physiological process. MicroRNAs regulate gene expression and provide new diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic options for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. In this work, the role of molecular signaling pathways related to head and neck squamous cell carcinoma is emphasized. We also provide an overview of MicroRNA downregulation and overexpression and its role as a diagnostic and prognostic marker in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. In recent years, MicroRNA nano-based therapies for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma have been explored. In addition, nanotechnology-based alternatives have been discussed as a promising strategy in exploring therapeutic paradigms aimed at improving the efficacy of conventional cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents against head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and attenuating their cytotoxicity. This article also provides information on ongoing and recently completed clinical trials for therapies based on nanotechnology.