Therapeutic effects of Crataegus monogyna inhibitors against breast cancer
Breast cancer is a silent killer disorder among women and a serious economic burden in healthcare management. Every 19 s, a woman is diagnosed with breast cancer, and every 74 s, a woman worldwide passes away from the disease. Despite the increase in progressive research, advanced treatment approaches, and preventive measures, breast cancer rates continue to increase. This study provides a combination of data mining, network pharmacology, and docking analysis that surely could revolutionize cancer treatment by exploiting prestigious phytochemicals. Crataegus monogyna is a small, rounded deciduous tree with glossy, deeply lobed leaves and flat sprays of cream flowers, followed by dark red berries in autumn. Various studies demonstrated that C. monogyna is therapeutically effective against breast cancer. However, the particular molecular mechanism is still unknown. This study is credited for locating bioactive substances, metabolic pathways, and target genes for breast cancer treatment. According to the current investigation, which examined compound–target genes–pathway networks, it was found that the bioactive compounds of C. monogyna may operate as a viable solution against breast cancer by altering the target genes implicated in the disease pathogenesis. The expression level of target genes was analyzed using GSE36295 microarray data. Docking analysis and molecular dynamic simulation studies further strengthened the current findings by validating the effective activity of the bioactive compounds against putative target genes. In summary, we propose that six key compounds, luteolin, apigenin, quercetin, kaempferol, ursolic acid, and oleanolic acid, contributed to the development of breast cancer by affecting the MMP9 and PPARG proteins. Integration of network pharmacology and bioinformatics revealed C. monogyna’s multitarget pharmacological mechanisms against breast cancer. This study provides convincing evidence that C. monogyna might partially alleviate breast cancer and ultimately lays a foundation for further experimental research on the anti-breast cancer activity of C. monogyna .