One Pot Synthesis, Biological Efficacy of AuNPs and Au-Amoxicillin Conjugates Functionalized with Crude Flavonoids Extract of Micromeria biflora
Amoxicillin is the most widely used antibiotic in human medicine for treating bacterial infections. However, in the present research, Micromeria biflora’s flavonoids extract mediated gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were conjugated with amoxicillin (Au-amoxi) to study their efficacy against the inflammation and pain caused by bacterial infections. The formation of AuNPs and Au-amoxi conjugates were confirmed by UV–visible surface plasmon peaks at 535 nm and 545 nm, respectively. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM), zeta potential (ZP), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies reveal that the size of AuNPs and Au-amoxi are found to be 42 nm and 45 nm, respectively. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) absorption bands at 3200 cm −1 , 1000 cm −1 , 1500 cm −1 , and 1650 cm −1 reveal the possible involvement of different moieties for the formation of AuNPs and Au-amoxi. The pH studies show that AuNPs and Au-amoxi conjugates are stable at lower pH. The carrageenan-induced paw edema test, writhing test, and hot plate test were used to conduct in vivo anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive studies, respectively. According to in vivo anti-inflammatory activity, Au-amoxi compounds have higher efficiency (70%) after 3 h at a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight as compared to standard diclofenac (60%) at 20 mg/kg, amoxicillin (30%) at 100 mg/kg, and flavonoids extract (35%) at 100 mg/kg. Similarly, for antinociceptive activities, writhing test results show that Au-amoxi conjugates produced the same number of writhes (15) but at a lower dose (10 mg/kg) compared to standard diclofenac (20 mg/kg). The hot plate test results demonstrate that the Au-amoxi has a better latency time of 25 s at 10 mg/kg dose when compared to standard Tramadol of 22 s at 30 mg/ kg, amoxicillin of 14 s at 100 mg/kg, and extract of 14 s at 100 mg/kg after placing the mice on the hot plate for 30, 60, and 90 min with a significance of ( p ≤ 0.001). These findings show that the conjugation of AuNPs with amoxicillin to form Au-amoxi can boost its anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive potential caused by bacterial infections.