Determination of Hypoglycemic, Hypolipidemic and Nephroprotective Effects of Berberis Calliobotrys in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats
Many plants of the Berberis genus have been reported pharmacologically to possess anti-diabetic potential, and Berberis calliobotrys has been found to be an inhibitor of α-glucosidase, α-amylase and tyrosinase. Thus, this study investigated the hypoglycemic effects of Berberis calliobotrys methanol extract/fractions using in vitro and In vivo methods. Bovine serum albumin (BSA), BSA–methylglyoxal and BSA–glucose methods were used to assess anti-glycation activity in vitro, while in vivo hypoglycemic effects were determined by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Moreover, the hypolipidemic and nephroprotective effects were studied and phenolics were detected using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In vitro anti-glycation showed a significant reduction in glycated end-products formation at 1, 0.25 and 0.5 mg/mL. In vivo hypoglycemic effects were tested at 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg by measuring blood glucose, insulin, hemoglobin (Hb) and HbA1c. The synergistic effect of extract/fractions (600 mg/kg) with insulin exhibited a pronounced glucose reduction in alloxan diabetic rats. The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) demonstrated a decline in glucose concentration. Moreover, extract/fractions (600 mg/kg) exhibited an improved lipid profile, increased Hb, HbA1c levels and body weight for 30 days. Furthermore, diabetic animals significantly exhibited an upsurge in total protein, albumin and globulin levels, along with a significant improvement in urea and creatinine after extract/fractions administration for 42 days. Phytochemistry revealed alkaloids, tannins, glycosides, flavonoids, phenols, terpenoids and saponins. HPLC showed the presence of phenolics in ethyl acetate fraction that could be accountable for pharmacological actions. Therefore, it can be concluded that Berberis calliobotrys possesses strong hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and nephroprotective effects, and could be a potential therapeutic agent for diabetes treatment.