All Roads Lead to Rome: Enhancing the Probability of Target Attainment with Different Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Modelling Approaches
In light of rising antimicrobial resistance and a decreasing number of antibiotics with novel modes of action, it is of utmost importance to accelerate development of novel treatment options. One aspect of acceleration is to understand pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of drugs and to assess the probability of target attainment (PTA). Several in vitro and in vivo methods are deployed to determine these parameters, such as time-kill-curves, hollow-fiber infection models or animal models. However, to date the use of in silico methods to predict PK/PD and PTA is increasing. Since there is not just one way to perform the in silico analysis, we embarked on reviewing for which indications and how PK and PK/PD models as well as PTA analysis has been used to contribute to the understanding of the PK and PD of a drug. Therefore, we examined four recent examples in more detail, namely ceftazidime-avibactam, omadacycline, gepotidacin and zoliflodacin as well as cefiderocol. Whereas the first two compound classes mainly relied on the ‘classical’ development path and PK/PD was only deployed after approval, cefiderocol highly profited from in silico techniques that led to its approval. Finally, this review shall highlight current developments and possibilities to accelerate drug development, especially for anti-infectives.