Biocide Susceptibility and Antimicrobial Resistance of Escherichia coli Isolated from Swine Feces, Pork Meat and Humans in Germany
Phenotypic susceptibility testing of Escherichia ( E. ) coli is an essential tool to gain a better understanding of the potential impact of biocide selection pressure on antimicrobial resistance. We, therefore, determined the biocide and antimicrobial susceptibility of 216 extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing (ESBL) and 177 non-ESBL E. coli isolated from swine feces, pork meat, voluntary donors and inpatients and evaluated associations between their susceptibilities. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of benzalkonium chloride, chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG), chlorocresol (PCMC), glutaraldehyde (GDA), isopropanol (IPA), octenidine dihydrochloride and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) showed unimodal distributions, indicating the absence of bacterial adaptation to biocides due to the acquisition of resistance mechanisms. Although MIC 95 and MBC 95 did not vary more than one doubling dilution step between isolates of porcine and human origin, significant differences in MIC and/or MBC distributions were identified for GDA, CHG, IPA, PCMC and NaOCl. Comparing non-ESBL and ESBL E. coli , significantly different MIC and/or MBC distributions were found for PCMC, CHG and GDA. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed the highest frequency of resistant E. coli in the subpopulation isolated from inpatients. We observed significant but weakly positive correlations between biocide MICs and/or MBCs and antimicrobial MICs. In summary, our data indicate a rather moderate effect of biocide use on the susceptibility of E. coli to biocides and antimicrobials.