Polyphenols—Ensured Accessibility from Food to the Human Metabolism by Chemical and Biotechnological Treatments
Polyphenols are plant-based compounds famous for their positive impact on both human health and the quality of food products. The benefits of polyphenols are related to reducing cardiovascular diseases, cholesterol management, cancers, and neurological disorders in humans and increasing the shelf life, management of oxidation, and anti-microbial activity in food products. The bioavailability and bio-accessibility of polyphenols are of the highest importance to secure their impact on human and food health. This paper summarizes the current state-of-the-art approaches on how polyphenols can be made more accessible in food products to contribute to human health. For example, by using food processing methods including various technologies, such as chemical and biotechnological treatments. Food matrix design and simulation procedures, in combination with encapsulation of fractionated polyphenols utilizing enzymatic and fermentation methodology, may be the future technologies to tailor specific food products with the ability to ensure polyphenol release and availability in the most suitable parts of the human body (bowl, intestine, etc.). The development of such new procedures for utilizing polyphenols, combining novel methodologies with traditional food processing technologies, has the potential to contribute enormous benefits to the food industry and health sector, not only reducing food waste and food-borne illnesses but also to sustain human health.