Non-Invasive Disease Specific Biomarker Detection Using Infrared Spectroscopy: A Review
Many life-threatening diseases remain obscure in their early disease stages. Symptoms appear only at the advanced stage when the survival rate is poor. A non-invasive diagnostic tool may be able to identify disease even at the asymptotic stage and save lives. Volatile metabolites-based diagnostics hold a lot of promise to fulfil this demand. Many experimental techniques are being developed to establish a reliable non-invasive diagnostic tool; however, none of them are yet able to fulfil clinicians’ demands. Infrared spectroscopy-based gaseous biofluid analysis demonstrated promising results to fulfil clinicians’ expectations. The recent development of the standard operating procedure (SOP), sample measurement, and data analysis techniques for infrared spectroscopy are summarized in this review article. It has also outlined the applicability of infrared spectroscopy to identify the specific biomarkers for diseases such as diabetes, acute gastritis caused by bacterial infection, cerebral palsy, and prostate cancer.