Mutated Isocitrate Dehydrogenase (mIDH) as Target for PET Imaging in Gliomas
Gliomas are the most common primary brain tumors in adults. A diffuse infiltrative growth pattern and high resistance to therapy make them largely incurable, but there are significant differences in the prognosis of patients with different subtypes of glioma. Mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) have been recognized as an important biomarker for glioma classification and a potential therapeutic target. However, current clinical methods for detecting mutated IDH (mIDH) require invasive tissue sampling and cannot be used for follow-up examinations or longitudinal studies. PET imaging could be a promising approach for non-invasive assessment of the IDH status in gliomas, owing to the availability of various mIDH-selective inhibitors as potential leads for the development of PET tracers. In the present review, we summarize the rationale for the development of mIDH-selective PET probes, describe their potential applications beyond the assessment of the IDH status and highlight potential challenges that may complicate tracer development. In addition, we compile the major chemical classes of mIDH-selective inhibitors that have been described to date and briefly consider possible strategies for radiolabeling of the most promising candidates. Where available, we also summarize previous studies with radiolabeled analogs of mIDH inhibitors and assess their suitability for PET imaging in gliomas.