Degradation of Phenol via an Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) with Immobilized Commercial Titanium Dioxide (TiO 2 ) Photocatalysts
Four commercial titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) photocatalysts, namely P25, P90, PC105, and PC500, were immobilized onto steel plates using a sol-gel binder and investigated for phenol degradation under 365 nm UV-LED irradiation. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and total organic carbon (TOC) analyses were performed to study the impact of three types of oxygen sources (air, dispersed synthetic air, and hydrogen peroxide) on the photocatalytic performance. The photocatalyst films were stable and there were significant differences in their performance. The best result was obtained with the P90/UV/H 2 O 2 system with 100% degradation and about 70% mineralization within 3 h of irradiation. The operating conditions varied, showing that water quality is crucial for the performance. A wastewater treatment plant was developed based on the lab-scale results and water treatment costs were estimated for two cases of irradiation: UV-LED (about 600 EUR/m 3 ) and sunlight (about 60 EUR/m 3 ). The data show the high potential of immobilized photocatalysts for pollutant degradation under advanced oxidation process (AOP) conditions, but there is still a need for optimization to further reduce treatment costs.