Intragastric Carbon Dioxide Release Prolongs the Gastric Residence Time of Postprandially Administered Caffeine
Sparkling water is said to increase gastric motility by the release of carbon dioxide, thereby potentially affecting the pharmacokinetics of orally administered drugs. The hypothesis of the present work was that the induction of gastric motility by intragastric release of carbon dioxide from effervescent granules could promote the mixing of drugs into the chyme under postprandial conditions, resulting in a prolonged drug absorption. For this purpose, an effervescent and a non-effervescent granule formulation of caffeine as a marker for gastric emptying were developed. In a three-way crossover study with twelve healthy volunteers, the salivary caffeine pharmacokinetics, after administration of the effervescent granules with still water and the administration of the non-effervescent granules with still and sparkling water, were investigated after intake of a standard meal. While the administration of the effervescent granules with 240 mL of still water led to a significantly prolonged gastric residence of the substance compared to the administration of the non-effervescent granules with 240 mL still water, the application of the non-effervescent granules with 240 mL sparkling water did not prolong gastric residence via mixing into caloric chyme. Overall, the mixing of caffeine into the chyme following the administration of the effervescent granules did not seem to be a motility mediated process.