Nanoconstructs for theranostic application in cancer: Challenges and strategies to enhance the delivery
Nanoconstructs are made up of nanoparticles and ligands, which can deliver the loaded cargo at the desired site of action. Various nanoparticulate platforms have been utilized for the preparation of nanoconstructs, which may serve both diagnostic as well as therapeutic purposes. Nanoconstructs are mostly used to overcome the limitations of cancer therapies, such as toxicity, nonspecific distribution of the drug, and uncontrolled release rate. The strategies employed during the design of nanoconstructs help improve the efficiency and specificity of loaded theranostic agents and make them a successful approach for cancer therapy. Nanoconstructs are designed with a sole purpose of targeting the requisite site, overcoming the barriers which hinders its right placement for desired benefit. Therefore, instead of classifying modes for delivery of nanoconstructs as actively or passively targeted systems, they are suitably classified as autonomous and nonautonomous types. At large, nanoconstructs offer numerous benefits, however they suffer from multiple challenges, too. Hence, to overcome such challenges computational modelling methods and artificial intelligence/machine learning processes are being explored. The current review provides an overview on attributes and applications offered by nanoconstructs as theranostic agent in cancer.