Adenosine and P1 receptors: Key targets in the regulation of sleep, torpor, and hibernation
Sleep, torpor, and hibernation are three distinct hypometabolic states. However, they have some similar physiological features, such as decreased core body temperature and slowing heart rate. In addition, the accumulation of adenosine seems to be a common feature before entry into these three states, suggesting that adenosine and its receptors, also known as P1 receptors, may mediate the initiation and maintenance of these states. This review, therefore, summarizes the current research on the roles and possible neurobiological mechanisms of adenosine and P1 receptors in sleep, torpor, and hibernation. Understanding these aspects will give us better prospects in sleep disorders, therapeutic hypothermia, and aerospace medicine.
Graphical Abstract Adenosine mediates sleep, torpor and hibernation through P1 receptors. Recent reasearch has shown that P1 receptors play a vital role in the regulation of sleep-wake, torpor and hibernation-like states. In this review, we focus on the roles and neurobiological mechanisms of the CNS adenosine and P1 receptors in these three states. Among them, A 1 and A 2A receptors are key targets for sleep-wake regulation, A 1 Rs and A 3 Rs are very important for torpor induction, and activation of A 1 Rs is sufficient for hibernation-like state.