GABA B Receptor Activation Affects Eye Growth in Chickens with Visually Induced Refractive Errors
This study aims to explore the role of GABA B receptors in the development of deprivation myopia (DM), lens-induced myopia (LIM) and lens-induced hyperopia (LIH). Chicks were intravitreally injected with 25 µg baclofen (GABA B R agonist) in one eye and saline into the fellow eye. Choroidal thickness (ChT) was measured via OCT before and 2, 4, 6, 8, 24 h after injection. ChT decreased strongly at 6 and 8 h after baclofen injection and returned back to baseline level after 24 h. Moreover, chicks were monocularly treated with translucent diffusers, −7D or +7D lenses and randomly assigned to baclofen or saline treatment. DM chicks were injected daily into both eyes, while LIM and LIH chicks were monocularly injected into the lens-wearing eyes, for 4 days. Refractive error, axial length and ChT were measured before and after treatment. Dopamine and its metabolites were analyzed via HPLC. Baclofen significantly reduced the myopic shift and eye growth in DM and LIM eyes. However, it did not change ChT compared to respective saline-injected eyes. On the other hand, baclofen inhibited the hyperopic shift and choroidal thickening in LIH eyes. All the baclofen-injected eyes showed significantly lower vitreal DOPAC content. Since GABA is an inhibitory ubiquitous neurotransmitter, interfering with its signaling affects spatial retinal processing and therefore refractive error development with both diffusers and lenses.