Hypertrophic, Dilated, and Arrhythmogenic Cardiomyopathy: Where Are We?

Cardiomyopathies are a heterogeneous group of structural, mechanical, and electrical heart muscle disorders which often correlate with life-threatening arrhythmias and progressive heart failure accounting for significant cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Currently, cardiomyopathies still represent a leading reason for heart transplantation worldwide. The last years have brought remarkable advances in the field of cardiomyopathies especially in terms of understanding the molecular basis as well as the diagnostic evaluation and management. Although most cardiomyopathy treatments had long focused on symptom management, much of the current research efforts aim to identify and act on the disease-driving mechanisms. Regarding risk assessment and primary prevention of sudden cardiac death, additional data are still pending in order to pave the way for a more refined and early patient selection for defibrillator implantation. This review summarizes the current knowledge of hypertrophic, dilated and arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy with a particular emphasis on their pathophysiology, clinical features, and diagnostic approach. Furthermore, the relevant ongoing studies investigating novel management approaches and main gaps in knowledge are highlighted.


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