Targeting immune cell types of tumor microenvironment to overcome resistance to PD-1/PD-L1 blockade in lung cancer
Lung cancer is the common malignant tumor with the highest mortality rate. Lung cancer patients have achieved benefits from immunotherapy, including immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) therapy. Unfortunately, cancer patients acquire adaptive immune resistance, leading to poor prognosis. Tumor microenvironment (TME) has been demonstrated to play a critical role in participating in acquired adaptive immune resistance. TME is associated with molecular heterogeneity of immunotherapy efficacy in lung cancer. In this article, we discuss how immune cell types of TME are correlated with immunotherapy in lung cancer. Moreover, we describe the efficacy of immunotherapy in driven gene mutations in lung cancer, including KRAS, TP53, EGFR, ALK, ROS1, KEAP1, ZFHX3, PTCH1, PAK7, UBE3A, TNF-α, NOTCH, LRP1B, FBXW7, and STK11. We also emphasize that modulation of immune cell types of TME could be a promising strategy for improving adaptive immune resistance in lung cancer.