Headspace Solid Phase Micro-Extraction of Volatile Constituents Produced from Saudi Ruta chalepensis and Molecular Docking Study of Potential Antioxidant Activity
Ruta chalepensis L., commonly known as Shazab in Saudi Arabia, is one of the famous culinary plants belonging to the Rutaceae family. It is commonly used in ethnomedicine in treating numerous diseases. This study was performed to characterize the essential oil isolated from Saudi species using a relatively new advanced headspace solid-phase microextraction technique. Following that, the antioxidant activity of the extracted oil was assessed using in vitro techniques such as the DPPH and nitric oxide scavenging tests, as well as the reducing power FRAP study and the molecular docking tool. The essential oil yield of the dried plant was 0.83% ( v / w ). Gas chromatography joined with a mass spectrometer was used to determine the chemical composition of the pale-yellow essential oil. Sixty-eight constituents were detected, representing 97.70% of the total oil content. The major constituents were aliphatic ketones dominated by 2-undecanone (37.30%) and 2-nonanone (20.00%), with minor constituents of mono and sesquiterpenoids chemical classes. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase is one of the major causes of many contemporary diseases due to its ability to create a reactive oxygen species (ROS). Thus, molecular docking was used to confirm that some oil phytoconstituents have good docking scores compared to the standard antioxidant drug (Vitamin C), indicating great binding compatibility between the (NADPH) oxidase receptor site and the ligand. In conclusion, our findings suggest that the oil could be used safely and as a cost-effective remedy in treating various modern diseases caused by free radical formation.