Green Chemometric Determination of Cefotaxime Sodium in the Presence of Its Degradation Impurities Using Different Multivariate Data Processing Tools; GAPI and AGREE Greenness Evaluation
Four eco-friendly, cost-effective, and fast stability-indicating UV-VIS spectrophotometric methods were validated for cefotaxime sodium (CFX) determination either in the presence of its acidic or alkaline degradation products. The applied methods used multivariate chemometry, namely, classical least square (CLS), principal component regression (PCR), partial least square (PLS), and genetic algorithm-partial least square (GA-PLS), to resolve the analytes’ spectral overlap. The spectral zone for the studied mixtures was within the range from 220 to 320 nm at a 1 nm interval. The selected region showed severe overlap in the UV spectra of cefotaxime sodium and its acidic or alkaline degradation products. Seventeen mixtures were used for the models’ construction, and eight were used as an external validation set. For the PLS and GA-PLS models, a number of latent factors were determined as a pre-step before the modelsʹ construction and found to be three for the (CFX/acidic degradants) mixture and two for the (CFX/alkaline degradants) mixture. For GA-PLS, spectral points were minimized to around 45% of the PLS models. The root mean square errors of prediction were found to be (0.19, 0.29, 0.47, and 0.20) for the (CFX/acidic degradants) mixture and (0.21, 0.21, 0.21, and 0.22) for the (CFX/alkaline degradants) mixture for CLS, PCR, PLS, and GA-PLS, respectively, indicating the excellent accuracy and precision of the developed models. The linear concentration range was studied within 12–20 μg mL –1 for CFX in both mixtures. The validity of the developed models was also judged using other different calculated tools such as root mean square error of cross validation, percentage recoveries, standard deviations, and correlation coefficients, which indicated excellent results. The developed methods were also applied to the determination of cefotaxime sodium in marketed vials, with satisfactory results. The results were statistically compared to the reported method, revealing no significant differences. Furthermore, the greenness profiles of the proposed methods were assessed using the GAPI and AGREE metrics.