Click-Functionalization of Silanized Carbon Nanotubes: From Inorganic Heterostructures to Biosensing Nanohybrids
Here we present an approach to functionalize silanized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) through copper-free click chemistry for the assembly of inorganic and biological nanohybrids. The nanotube functionalization route involves silanization and strain-promoted azide–alkyne cycloaddition reactions (SPACC). This was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy. Silane–azide-functionalized SWNTs were immobilized from solution onto patterned substrates through dielectrophoresis (DEP). We demonstrate the general applicability of our strategy for the functionalization of SWNTs with metal nanoparticles (gold nanoparticles), fluorescent dyes (Alexa Fluor 647) and biomolecules (aptamers). In this regard, dopamine-binding aptamers were conjugated to the functionalized SWNTs to perform real-time detection of dopamine at different concentrations. Additionally, the chemical route is shown to selectively functionalize individual nanotubes grown on the surface of silicon substrates, contributing towards future nano electronic device applications.