Lateral Controlled Doping and Defect Engineering of Graphene by Ultra-Low-Energy Ion Implantation
In this paper, the effectiveness of ultra-low-energy ion implantation as a means of defect engineering in graphene was explored through the measurement of Scanning Kelvin Probe Microscopy (SKPM) and Raman spectroscopy, with boron (B) and helium (He) ions being implanted into monolayer graphene samples. We used electrostatic masks to create a doped and non-doped region in one single implantation step. For verification we measured the surface potential profile along the sample and proved the feasibility of lateral controllable doping. In another experiment, a voltage gradient was applied across the graphene layer in order to implant helium at different energies and thus perform an ion-energy-dependent investigation of the implantation damage of the graphene. For this purpose Raman measurements were performed, which show the different damage due to the various ion energies. Finally, ion implantation simulations were conducted to evaluate damage formation.