Energetic Electron-Assisted Synthesis of Tailored Magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) and Maghemite (γ−Fe 2 O 3 ) Nanoparticles: Structure and Magnetic Properties
Iron oxide nanoparticles with a mean size of approximately 5 nm were synthesized by irradiating micro-emulsions containing iron salts with energetic electrons. The properties of the nanoparticles were investigated using scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, selective area diffraction and vibrating sample magnetometry. It was found that formation of superparamagnetic nanoparticles begins at a dose of 50 kGy, though these particles show low crystallinity, and a higher portion is amorphous. With increasing doses, an increasing crystallinity and yield could be observed, which is reflected in an increasing saturation magnetization. The blocking temperature and effective anisotropy constant were determined via zero-field cooling and field cooling measurements. The particles tend to form clusters with a size of 34 nm to 73 nm. Magnetite/maghemite nanoparticles could be identified via selective area electron diffraction patterns. Additionally, goethite nanowires could be observed.