Fucoidan in Pharmaceutical Formulations: A Comprehensive Review for Smart Drug Delivery Systems
Fucoidan is a heterogeneous group of polysaccharides isolated from marine organisms, including brown algae and marine invertebrates. The physicochemical characteristics and potential bioactivities of fucoidan have attracted substantial interest in pharmaceutical industries in the past few decades. These polysaccharides are characterized by possessing sulfate ester groups that impart negatively charged surfaces, low/high molecular weight, and water solubility. In addition, various promising bioactivities have been reported, such as antitumor, immunomodulatory, and antiviral effects. Hence, the formulation of fucoidan has been investigated in the past few years in diverse pharmaceutical dosage forms to be able to reach their site of action effectively. Moreover, they can act as carriers for various drugs in value-added drug delivery systems. The current work highlights the attractive biopharmaceutical properties of fucoidan being formulated in oral, inhalable, topical, injectable, and other advanced formulations treating life-quality-affecting diseases. Therefore, the present work points out the current status of fucoidan pharmaceutical formulations for future research transferring their application from in vitro and in vivo studies to clinical application and market availability.