A Transient Inflammatory Response Induced by Lipopolysaccharide Infusion Lowers Markers of Endogenous Cholesterol and Bile Acid Synthesis in Healthy Normocholesterolemic Young Men
Inflammation is associated with changes in plasma lipids, lipoproteins, and cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC). It is unknown if the changes in lipids and lipoproteins during inflammation are related to changes in cholesterol absorption, synthesis, and bile acid synthesis. We, therefore, examined the effects of acute lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced transient systemic inflammation on lipids, lipoproteins, CEC, and markers of cholesterol metabolism. We also evaluated whether markers for cholesterol metabolism at baseline predict the intensity of the inflammatory response. Eight healthy young subjects received LPS infusion, and blood was sampled for the following 24 h. In addition to lipids, lipoproteins, and CEC, we also measured markers for cholesterol absorption and synthesis, bile acid synthesis, and inflammation. Compared with baseline, plasma total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and CEC decreased, while triglycerides increased in the 24 h following LPS infusion. TC-standardized levels of cholesterol synthesis markers (lathosterol, lanosterol, and desmosterol) and a bile acid synthesis marker (7α-OH-cholesterol) also decreased, with no changes in cholesterol absorption markers (campesterol, sitosterol, and cholestanol). Baseline TC-standardized levels of desmosterol and 7α-OH-cholesterol were positively correlated with concentrations of various inflammatory markers. Changes in TC-standardized desmosterol and 7α-OH-cholesterol were negatively correlated with concentrations of inflammatory markers. LPS infusion reduced endogenous cholesterol synthesis and bile acid synthesis in healthy young men.