In Vitro, In Vivo, and In Silico Analyses of Molecular Anti-Pigmentation Mechanisms of Selected Thai Rejuvenating Remedy and Bioactive Metabolites
Thai rejuvenating remedies are mixed herbal formulas promoting longevity. Due to the complexity, the biological activities of these remedies are minimal. Therefore, in this study, the authors evaluated the anti-pigmentation effect at the molecular level of the selected Thai rejuvenating remedy to fulfill the knowledge gap. First, the authors found that the selected remedy showed promising activity against the tyrosinase enzyme with an IC 50 value of 9.41 µg/mL. In the comparison, kojic acid (positive control) exhibited an IC 50 value of 3.92 µg/mL against the same enzyme. Later, the authors identified glabridin as a bioactive molecule against tyrosinase with an IC 50 value of 0.08 µg/mL. However, ethyl p -methoxycinnamate was the most abundant metabolite found in the remedy. The authors also found that the selected remedy and glabridin reduced the melanin content in the cell-based assay (B16F1) but not in the zebrafish larvae experiment. Finally, the authors conducted a computational investigation through molecular docking proposing a theoretical molecular interplay between glabridin, ethyl p -methoxycinnamate, and target proteins (tyrosinase and melanocortin-1 receptor, MC1R). Hence, in this study, the authors reported the molecular anti-pigmentation mechanism of the selected Thai rejuvenating remedy for the first time by combining the results from in silico, in vitro, and in vivo experiments.