Mechanistic Approaches to the Application of Nano-Zinc in the Poultry and Biomedical Industries: A Comprehensive Review of Future Perspectives and Challenges
Bio-fortification is a new, viable, cost-effective, and long-term method of administering crucial minerals to a populace with limited exposure to diversified foods and other nutritional regimens. Nanotechnology entities aid in the improvement of traditional nutraceutical absorption, digestibility, and bio-availability. Nano-applications are employed in poultry systems utilizing readily accessible instruments and processes that have no negative impact on animal health and welfare. Nanotechnology is a sophisticated innovation in the realm of biomedical engineering that is used to diagnose and cure various poultry ailments. In the 21st century, zinc nanoparticles had received a lot of considerable interest due to their unusual features. ZnO NPs exhibit antibacterial properties; however, the qualities of nanoparticles (NPs) vary with their size and structure, rendering them adaptable to diverse uses. ZnO NPs have shown remarkable promise in bio-imaging and drug delivery due to their high bio-compatibility. The green synthesized nanoparticles have robust biological activities and are used in a variety of biological applications across industries. The current review also discusses the formulation and recent advancements of zinc oxide nanoparticles from plant sources (such as leaves, stems, bark, roots, rhizomes, fruits, flowers, and seeds) and their anti-cancerous activities, activities in wound healing, and drug delivery, followed by a detailed discussion of their mechanisms of action.