Development and Characterization of Novel In-Situ-Forming Oleogels
PLGA-based in situ forming implants (ISFI) often require a high amount of potentially toxic solvents such as N methyl-Pyrrolidone (NMP). The aim of the present study was to develop lipid in-situ-forming oleogels (ISFOs) as alternative delivery systems. 12-Hydroxystearic acid (12-HSA) was selected as the oleogelling agent and three different oleoformulations were investigated: (a) 12-HSA, peanut oil (PO), NMP; (b) 12-HSA, medium-chain triglycerides (MCT), ethanol; (c) 12-HSA, isopropyl myristate (IPM), ethanol. The effects of the 12-HSA concentration, preparation method, and composition on the mechanical stability were examined using a texture analysis and oscillating rheology. The texture analysis was used to obtain information on the compression strength. The amplitude sweeps were analyzed to provide information on the gel strength and the risk of brittle fractures. The frequency sweeps allowed insights into the long-term stability and risk of syneresis. The syringeability of the ISFOs was tested, along with their acute and long-term cytotoxicity in vitro. The developed ISFOs have the following advantages: (1) the avoidance of highly acidic degradation products; (2) low amounts of organic solvents required; (3) low toxicity; (4) low injection forces, even with small needle sizes. Therefore, ISFOs are promising alternatives to the existing polymer/NMP-based ISFIs.