How Do Users Respond to Mass Vaccination Centers? A Cross-Sectional Study Using Natural Language Processing on Online Reviews to Explore User Experience and Satisfaction with COVID-19 Vaccination Centers

To reach large groups of vaccine recipients, several high-income countries introduced mass vaccination centers for COVID-19. Understanding user experiences of these novel structures can help optimize their design and increase patient satisfaction and vaccine uptake. This study drew on user online reviews of vaccination centers to assess user experience and identify its key determinants over time, by sentiment, and by interaction. Machine learning methods were used to analyze Google reviews of six COVID-19 mass vaccination centers in Berlin from December 2020 to December 2021. 3647 user online reviews were included in the analysis. Of these, 89% (3261/3647) were positive according to user rating (four to five of five stars). A total of 85% (2740/3647) of all reviews contained text. Topic modeling of the reviews containing text identified five optimally latent topics, and keyword extraction identified 47 salient keywords. The most important themes were organization, friendliness/responsiveness, and patient flow/wait time. Key interactions for users of vaccination centers included waiting, scheduling, transit, and the vaccination itself. Keywords connected to scheduling and efficiency, such as “appointment” and “wait”, were most prominent in negative reviews. Over time, the average rating score decreased from 4.7 to 4.1, and waiting and duration became more salient keywords. Overall, mass vaccination centers appear to be positively perceived, yet users became more critical over the one-year period of the pandemic vaccination campaign observed. The study shows that online reviews can provide real-time insights into newly set-up infrastructures, and policymakers should consider their use to monitor the population’s response over time.


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