Humoral Immune Response to CoronaVac in Turkish Adults
While most approved vaccines are based on the viral spike protein or its immunogenic regions, inactivated whole-virion vaccines (e.g., CoronaVac) contain additional antigens that may enhance protection. This study analyzes short-term humoral responses against the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S1) and nucleocapsid (NCP) protein in 50 Turkish adults without previous SARS-CoV-2 infection after CoronaVac immunization. Samples were collected before vaccination (t0), 28–29 days after the first vaccine dose and prior to the second dose (t1), as well as 14–15 days after the second dose (t2). Anti-S1 IgG and IgA as well as anti-NCP IgG were quantified using ELISA. At t1, seroconversion rates for anti-S1 IgG, anti-S1 IgA and anti-NCP IgG were 30.0%, 28.0% and 4.0%, respectively, increasing significantly to 98.0%, 78.0% and 40.0% at t2. The anti-NCP IgG median (t2) was below the positivity cut-off, while anti-S1 IgG and IgA medians were positive. Anti-S1 IgG levels strongly correlated with anti-S1 IgA (r s = 0.767, p < 0.001) and anti-NCP IgG (r s = 0.683, p < 0.001). In conclusion, two CoronaVac doses induced significant increases in antibodies against S1 and NCP. Despite strong correlations between the antibody concentrations, the median levels and seroconversion rates of S1-specific responses exceed those of NCP-specific responses as early as two weeks after the second vaccine dose.