Anti-inflammatory activities of Coleus forsteri (formerly Plectranthus forsteri ) extracts on human macrophages and chemical characterization
Introduction: Formerly named Plectranthus forsteri , Coleus forsteri (Benth.) A.J.Paton, 2019 is a Lamiaceae traditionally used to treat flu-like symptoms and shock-related ecchymosis, especially in the Pacific region. Few studies investigated chemical composition and anti-inflammatory potential of this plant. Method: Herein, we investigated anti-inflammatory potential of C. forsteri ethanolic (ePE) and cyclohexane (cPE) plant extract on LPS-induced human macrophages models and quantified cytokines and quinolinic acid (QUIN) as inflammatory markers. Results: Our results show that extract of ePE and cPE significantly inhibit inflammatory cytokine IL-6 and TNF-α induced by LPS on PMA-derived THP-1 macrophages. QUIN production is also diminished under ePE and cPE treatment in activated human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs). Seven abietane diterpenes were characterized from C. forsteri cPE including coleon U ( 1 ), coleon U-quinone ( 2 ), 8α,9α-epoxycoleon U-quinone ( 3 ), horminone or 7α-hydroxyroyleanone ( 4 ), 6β,7α-dihydroxyroyleanone ( 5 ), 7α-acetoxy-6β-hydroxyroyleanone ( 6 ) and 7α-formyloxy-6β-hydroxyroyleanone ( 7 ). Discussion: We discussed potential contributions of these molecules from C. forsteri extracts for their anti-inflammatory activities.