Bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cell-derived small extracellular vesicles: A novel therapeutic agent in ischemic heart diseases
Myocardial injury is a major pathological factor that causes death in patients with heart diseases. In recent years, mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been generally used in treating many diseases in animal models and clinical trials. mesenchymal stromal cells have the ability to differentiate into osteocytes, adipocytes and chondrocytes. Thus, these cells are considered suitable for cardiac injury repair. However, mechanistic studies have shown that the secretomes of mesenchymal stromal cells, mainly small extracellular vesicles (sEVs), have better therapeutic effects than mesenchymal stromal cells themselves. In addition, small extracellular vesicles have easier quality control characteristics and better safety profiles. Therefore, mesenchymal stromal cell-small extracellular vesicles are emerging as novel therapeutic agents for damaged myocardial treatment. To date, many clinical trials and preclinical experimental results have demonstrated the beneficial effects of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BMMSCs) and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells-small extracellular vesicles on ischemic heart disease. However, the validation of therapeutic efficacy and the use of tissue engineering methods require an exacting scientific rigor and robustness. This review summarizes the current knowledge of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells- or bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells-small extracellular vesicle-based therapy for cardiac injury and discusses critical scientific issues in the development of these therapeutic strategies.