Quantitative effects of sodium–glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors dapagliflozin and empagliflozin on quality of life in heart failure patients
The aim of the present study is to investigate the quantitative effects of sodium–glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors on the quality of life in heart failure (HF) patients. A total of 14,674 HF patients from two dapagliflozin and three empagliflozin studies is included for analysis via the nonlinear mixed-effect modeling (NONMEM) software, among which the change rate of the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ) score is used as the evaluation index. There is no significant difference in the pharmacodynamics influencing the quality of life in HF patients between the SGLT-2 inhibitors: 10 mg/day dapagliflozin and 10 mg/day empagliflozin. For the clinical summary score (CSS), total symptom score (TSS), and overall summary score (OSS), the E max of the SGLT-2 inhibitors on the quality of life in HF patients is 3.74%, 4.43%, and 4.84%, respectively, and ET 50 is 2.23, 4.37, and 7.15 weeks, respectively. In addition, the time duration of achieving 25%, 50%, 75%, and 80% E max is 0.75, 2.23, 6.69, and 8.92 weeks for the CSS; 1.46, 4.37, 13.11, and 17.48 weeks for the TSS; and 2.39, 7.15, 21.45, and 28.6 weeks for the OSS, respectively. Therefore, to reach the plateau period (80% of E max ) of SGLT-2 inhibitors on the CSS, TSS, and OSS, 10 mg/day dapagliflozin (or 10 mg/day empagliflozin) is required to be taken for 8.92 weeks, 17.48 weeks, and 28.6 weeks, respectively. This is the first time that the quantitative effects of SGLT-2 inhibitors on the quality of life in HF patients are being explored.