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Effervescent Atomizer as Novel Cell Spray Technology to Decrease the Gas-to-Liquid Ratio

ORCID
0000-0002-2990-0761
Affiliation
Department of Biohybrid & Medical Textiles (BioTex), AME—Institute of Applied Medical Engineering, Helmholtz Institute Aachen, RWTH Aachen University, Forckenbeckstraße 55, 52074 Aachen, Germany
Thiebes, Anja Lena;
Affiliation
Department of Biohybrid & Medical Textiles (BioTex), AME—Institute of Applied Medical Engineering, Helmholtz Institute Aachen, RWTH Aachen University, Forckenbeckstraße 55, 52074 Aachen, Germany
Klein, Sarah;
Affiliation
Department of Biohybrid & Medical Textiles (BioTex), AME—Institute of Applied Medical Engineering, Helmholtz Institute Aachen, RWTH Aachen University, Forckenbeckstraße 55, 52074 Aachen, Germany
Zingsheim, Jonas;
Affiliation
Institute of Heat and Mass Transfer (WSA), RWTH Aachen University, Augustinerbach 6, 52056 Aachen, Germany
Möller, Georg H.;
ORCID
0000-0003-1170-3353
Affiliation
Institute of Heat and Mass Transfer (WSA), RWTH Aachen University, Augustinerbach 6, 52056 Aachen, Germany
Gürzing, Stefanie;
Affiliation
Institute of Heat and Mass Transfer (WSA), RWTH Aachen University, Augustinerbach 6, 52056 Aachen, Germany
Reddemann, Manuel A.;
Affiliation
Laboratory Biomaterial, University of Applied Sciences Aachen, Heinrich-Mußmann-Straße 1, 52428 Jülich, Germany
Behbahani, Mehdi;
ORCID
0000-0003-0584-9444
Affiliation
Department of Biohybrid & Medical Textiles (BioTex), AME—Institute of Applied Medical Engineering, Helmholtz Institute Aachen, RWTH Aachen University, Forckenbeckstraße 55, 52074 Aachen, Germany
Jockenhoevel, Stefan;
Affiliation
Department of Biohybrid & Medical Textiles (BioTex), AME—Institute of Applied Medical Engineering, Helmholtz Institute Aachen, RWTH Aachen University, Forckenbeckstraße 55, 52074 Aachen, Germany
Cornelissen, Christian G.

Cell spraying has become a feasible application method for cell therapy and tissue engineering approaches. Different devices have been used with varying success. Often, twin-fluid atomizers are used, which require a high gas velocity for optimal aerosolization characteristics. To decrease the amount and velocity of required air, a custom-made atomizer was designed based on the effervescent principle. Different designs were evaluated regarding spray characteristics and their influence on human adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells. The arithmetic mean diameters of the droplets were 15.4–33.5 µm with decreasing diameters for increasing gas-to-liquid ratios. The survival rate was >90% of the control for the lowest gas-to-liquid ratio. For higher ratios, cell survival decreased to approximately 50%. Further experiments were performed with the design, which had shown the highest survival rates. After seven days, no significant differences in metabolic activity were observed. The apoptosis rates were not influenced by aerosolization, while high gas-to-liquid ratios caused increased necrosis levels. Tri-lineage differentiation potential into adipocytes, chondrocytes, and osteoblasts was not negatively influenced by aerosolization. Thus, the effervescent aerosolization principle was proven suitable for cell applications requiring reduced amounts of supplied air. This is the first time an effervescent atomizer was used for cell processing.

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