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Prophylactic Human Papillomavirus Vaccination: From the Origin to the Current State

Affiliation
School of Medicine, Nazarbayev University, Astana 010000, Kazakhstan
Akhatova, Ayazhan;
Affiliation
Department of Basic Sciences, College of Osteopathic Medicine, Touro University, Henderson, NV 89014, USA
Azizan, Azliyati;
ORCID
0000-0002-7048-1511
Affiliation
Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Nazarbayev University, Astana 010000, Kazakhstan
Atageldiyeva, Kuralay;
Affiliation
Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Nazarbayev University, Astana 010000, Kazakhstan
Ashimkhanova, Aiymkul;
Affiliation
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology #1, NJSC “Astana Medical University”, Astana 010000, Kazakhstan
Marat, Aizada;
Affiliation
Medical Center, Marat Ospanov West-Kazakhstan Medical University, Aktobe 030000, Kazakhstan
Iztleuov, Yerbolat;
Affiliation
Kazakh Institute of Oncology and Radiology, Almaty 050000, Kazakhstan
Suleimenova, Assem;
ORCID
0000-0001-9166-1872
Affiliation
Institute of Laboratory Medicine, Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics, Leipzig University Hospital, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
Shamkeeva, Saikal;
ORCID
0000-0002-2868-4497
Affiliation
Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Medicine, Nazarbayev University, Astana 010000, Kazakhstan
Aimagambetova, Gulzhanat

Immunization is the most successful method in preventing and controlling infectious diseases, which has helped saving millions of lives worldwide. The discovery of the human papillomavirus (HPV) infection being associated with a variety of benign conditions and cancers has driven the development of prophylactic HPV vaccines. Currently, four HPV vaccines are available on the pharmaceutical market: Cervarix, Gardasil, Gardasil-9, and the recently developed Cecolin. Multiple studies have proven the HPV vaccines’ safety and efficacy in preventing HPV-related diseases. Since 2006, when the first HPV vaccine was approved, more than 100 World Health Organization member countries reported the implementation of HPV immunization. However, HPV vaccination dread, concerns about its safety, and associated adverse outcomes have a significant impact on the HPV vaccine implementation campaigns all over the world. Many developed countries have successfully implemented HPV immunization and achieved tremendous progress in preventing HPV-related conditions. However, there are still many countries worldwide which have not created, or have not yet implemented, HPV vaccination campaigns, or have failed due to deficient realization plans associated with establishing successful HPV vaccination programs. Lack of proper HPV information campaigns, negative media reflection, and numerous myths and fake information have led to HPV vaccine rejection in many states. Thus, context-specific health educational interventions on HPV vaccination safety, effectiveness, and benefits are important to increase the vaccines’ acceptance for efficacious prevention of HPV-associated conditions.

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