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Thallusin Quantification in Marine Bacteria and Algae Cultures

Affiliation
Institute of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Lessingstr. 8, D-07743 Jena, Germany
Ulrich, Johann F.;
Affiliation
Institute of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Lessingstr. 8, D-07743 Jena, Germany
Gräfe, Melina S.;
Affiliation
Institute of Organic Chemistry and Macromolecular Chemistry, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Humboldtstr. 10, D-07743 Jena, Germany
Dhiman, Seema;
ORCID
0000-0002-3085-0642
Affiliation
Institute of Organic Chemistry and Macromolecular Chemistry, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Humboldtstr. 10, D-07743 Jena, Germany
Wienecke, Paul;
Affiliation
Institute of Organic Chemistry and Macromolecular Chemistry, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Humboldtstr. 10, D-07743 Jena, Germany
Arndt, Hans-Dieter;
ORCID
0000-0003-0061-4160
Affiliation
Institute of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Lessingstr. 8, D-07743 Jena, Germany
Wichard, Thomas

Thallusin, a highly biologically active, phytohormone-like and bacterial compound-inducing morphogenesis of the green tide-forming macroalga Ulva (Chlorophyta), was determined in bacteria and algae cultures. A sensitive and selective method was developed for quantification based on ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization and a high-resolution mass spectrometer. Upon C 18 solid phase extraction of the water samples, thallusin was derivatized with iodomethane to inhibit the formation of Fe–thallusin complexes interfering with the chromatographic separation. The concentration of thallusin was quantified during the relevant phases of the bacterial growth of Maribacter spp., ranging from 0.16 ± 0.01 amol cell −1 (at the peak of the exponential growth phase) to 0.86 ± 0.13 amol cell −1 (late stationary phase), indicating its accumulation in the growth medium. Finally, we directly determined the concentration of thallusin in algal culture to validate our approach for monitoring applications. Detection and quantification limits of 2.5 and 7.4 pmol L −1 , respectively, were reached, which allow for quantifying ecologically relevant thallusin concentrations. Our approach will enable the surveying of thallusin in culture and in nature and will thus contribute to the chemical monitoring of aquaculture.

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