Comparative Study of the Osteogenic Differentiation Potential of Adipose Tissue-Derived Stromal Cells and Dedifferentiated Adipose Cells of the Same Tissue Origin under Pro and Antioxidant Conditions
Adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ASCs) play an important role in various therapeutic approaches to bone regeneration. However, such applications become challenging when the obtained cells show a functional disorder, e.g., an impaired osteogenic differentiation potential (ODP). In addition to ASCs, human adipose tissue is also a source for another cell type with therapeutic potential, the dedifferentiated fat cells (DFATs), which can be obtained from mature adipocytes. Here, we for the first time compared the ODPs of each donors ASC and DFAT obtained from the same adipose tissue sample as well as the role of oxidative stress or antioxidative catalase on their osteogenic outcome. Osteogenic potential of ASC and DFAT from nine human donors were compared in vitro. Flow cytometry, staining for calcium accumulation with alizarin red, alkaline phosphatase assay and Western blots were used over an osteogenic induction period of up to 14 days. H 2 O 2 was used to induce oxidative stress and catalase was used as an antioxidative measure. We have found that ASC and DFAT cultures’ ODPs are nearly identical. If ASCs from an adipose tissue sample showed good or bad ODP, so did the corresponding DFAT cultures. The inter-individual variability of the donor ODPs was immense with a maximum factor of about 20 and correlated neither with the age nor the sex of the donors of the adipose tissue. Oxidative stress in the form of exogenously added H 2 O 2 led to a significant ODP decrease in both cell types, with this ODP decrease being significantly lower in DFAT cultures than in the corresponding ASC cultures. Regardless of the individual cell culture-specific ODP, however, exogenously applied catalase led to an approx. 2.5-fold increase in osteogenesis in the ASC and DFAT cultures. Catalase appears to be a potent pro-osteogenic factor, at least in vitro. A new finding that points to innovative strategies and therapeutic approaches in bone regeneration. Furthermore, our results show that DFATs behave similarly to ASCs of the same adipose tissue sample with respect to ODPs and could therefore be a very attractive and readily available source of multipotent stem cells in bone regenerative therapies.