Impact of Biometric Patient Data, Probiotic Supplementation, and Selected Gut Microorganisms on Calprotectin, Zonulin, and sIgA Concentrations in the Stool of Adults Aged 18–74 Years
Alterations to the intestinal barrier may be involved in the pathogenesis of various chronic diseases. The diagnosis of mucosal barrier disruption has become a new therapeutic target for disease prevention. The aim of this study was to determine whether various patient demographic and biometric data, often not included in diagnostic analyses, may affect calprotectin, zonulin, and sIgA biomarker values. Stool markers’ levels in 160 samples were measured colorimetrically. The analysis of twenty key bacteria (15 genera and 5 species) was carried out on the basis of diagnostic tests, including cultures and molecular tests. The concentrations of selected markers were within reference ranges for most patients. The sIgA level was significantly lower in participants declaring probiotics supplementation ( p = 0.0464). We did not observe differences in gastrointestinal discomfort in participants. We found significant differences in the sIgA level between the 29–55 years and >55 years age-related intervals groups ( p = 0.0191), together with a significant decreasing trend ( p = 0.0337) in age-dependent sIgA concentration. We observed complex interdependencies and relationships between their microbiota and the analyzed biomarkers. For correct clinical application, standardized values of calprotectin and sIgA should be determined, especially in elderly patients. We observed a correlation between the composition of the gut community and biomarker levels, although it requires further in-depth analysis.