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Ecological Distribution of Virulent Multidrug-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Livestock, Environment, and Dairy Products

ORCID
0000-0003-3955-1646
Affiliation
Department of Hygiene and Zoonoses, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura 35516, Egypt
Badawy, Basma;
Affiliation
Department of Food Hygiene and Control, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura 35516, Egypt
Elafify, Mahmoud;
Affiliation
Department of Internal Medicine, Infectious and Fish Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura 35516, Egypt
Farag, Alshimaa M. M.;
Affiliation
Department of Zoonoses, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Benha University, Benha 13511, Egypt
Moustafa, Samar M.;
ORCID
0000-0003-0777-8256
Affiliation
Department of Pharmacy Practice, College of Pharmacy, Jazan University, Jazan 82722, Saudi Arabia
Sayed-Ahmed, Mohamed Z.;
ORCID
0000-0002-5105-4637
Affiliation
Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut Institute of Bacterial Infections and Zoonoses, Naumburger Str. 96a, 07743 Jena, Germany
Moawad, Amira A.;
ORCID
0000-0001-5580-1559
Affiliation
Department of Bacteriology, Immunology and Mycology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia 41522, Egypt
Algammal, Abdelazeem M.;
ORCID
0000-0002-6687-3758
Affiliation
Department of Hygiene and Zoonoses, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura 35516, Egypt
Ramadan, Hazem;
Affiliation
Global Academy of Agriculture and Food Systems, The Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush Campus, Midlothian, Edinburgh EH25 9RG, UK
Eltholth, Mahmoud

Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common causes of mastitis, leading to severe economic losses in the dairy industry. It is also zoonotic, with potential risks to public health. This study aimed to detect the occurrence of S. aureus -resistant strains isolated from cattle, buffalo, their environment, milk and dairy products; and to investigate the extent of animal, ecological, and food contamination by methicillin-resistant (MRSA) or enterotoxigenic S. aureus . Samples ( n = 350) were collected from four animal (two cattle and two buffalo) farms, i.e., their environment. Thirty Karish cheese samples were collected from 10 markets in Mansoura, Egypt. S. aureus was detected in 17.9%, 17.6%, and 16.7% of samples collected from cattle, buffalo and Karish cheese, respectively. About 19% of isolated S. aureus strains carried the mec A gene. The distribution of the mec A gene was high in isolates from Karish cheese (60%), followed by samples collected from buffalo (16.2%) and cattle (16%). More than 34% of isolated S. aureus strains were enterotoxigenic, and the presence of enterotoxin genes was higher in isolates from Karish cheese (80%) than those from cattle (48%) and buffalo (18.9%). The most predominant enterotoxin gene among isolated S. aureus strains was the sea gene (26.9%), followed by sec (4.5%) and sed (3%) genes. Isolated strains were resistant to clindamycin (100%), kanamycin (97%), nalidixic acid (86.6%), cefotaxime (73.1%) sulphamethazole—trimethoprim (65.6%). Meanwhile, 95.5%, 94%, 86.6% and 77.7% of S. aureus strains were sensitive to ciprofloxacin, amikacin, imipenem and both cefoxitin and gentamycin, respectively. In conclusion, the presence of enterotoxigenic- and methicillin-resistant S. aureus strains in animals, their environment, and dairy products represents a public health concern, particularly in small-scale dairy farms in Egypt. To reduce the risk of infection of livestock and humans with resistant strains, strict regulations and guidelines for antimicrobial use in such a system are urgently required.

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