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Genotyping for HLA risk alleles versus patch tests to diagnose anti-seizure medication induced cutaneous adverse drug reactions

Affiliation
Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Toxicology ,Leiden University Medical Center ,Leiden ,Netherlands
Manson, Lisanne E. N.;
Affiliation
Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Toxicology ,Leiden University Medical Center ,Leiden ,Netherlands
Chan, Patricia C. Y.;
Affiliation
Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Toxicology ,Leiden University Medical Center ,Leiden ,Netherlands
Böhringer, Stefan;
Affiliation
Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Toxicology ,Leiden University Medical Center ,Leiden ,Netherlands
Guchelaar, Henk-Jan

Aim: To provide a comparison of genotyping for HLA risk alleles versus patch testing to determine which of these two tests is a better diagnostic tool for cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions caused by anti-seizure medication. Methods: A literature study was performed in PubMed to assess the sensitivity and specificity of HLA genotyping and patch tests for identifying anti-seizure medication induced cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions. Results: This study shows that HLA-B*15:02 genotyping shows high sensitivity for carbamazepine-induced SJS/TEN, especially in Han Chinese and Southeast Asian patients (66.7–100.0%) whereas the sensitivity of patch tests (0.0–62,5%), HLA-A*31:01 (0–50%) and HLA-B*15:11 (18.2–42.9%) are lower. On the contrary, for carbamazepine and phenytoin induced DRESS, patch tests (respectively 70.0–88.9% and 14.3–70.0%) show higher sensitivity than HLA tests (0–66.7% and 0–12.7%). Also for lamotrigine-induced DRESS patch tests perform better than HLA-B*15:02 (33.3–40.0 versus 0%). For anti-seizure medication induced MPE and for oxcarbazepine-induced SCARs more studies are needed. Conclusion: Use of HLA-B genotyping may aid clinicians in the diagnosis of carbamazepine, phenytoin, lamotrigine and oxcarbazepine induced SJS/TEN, particularly in Han Chinese and Southeast Asian patients. On the other hand, patch tests seem to perform better in the diagnosis of carbamazepine and phenytoin induced DRESS.

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License Holder: Copyright © 2022 Manson, Chan, Böhringer and Guchelaar.

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