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Platycodin D induces apoptosis through JNK1/AP-1/PUMA pathway in non-small cell lung cancer cells: A new mechanism for an old compound

Affiliation
Department of Oncology ,Guang’anmen Hospital ,China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences ,Bejing ,China
Chen, Shuntai;
Affiliation
Department of Toxicology and Cancer Biology ,College of Medicine ,University of Kentucky ,Lexington ,KY ,United States
Wang, Qing;
Affiliation
Department of Toxicology and Cancer Biology ,College of Medicine ,University of Kentucky ,Lexington ,KY ,United States
Ming, Sarah;
Affiliation
Department of Oncology ,Guang’anmen Hospital ,China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences ,Bejing ,China
Zheng, Honggang;
Affiliation
Department of Oncology ,Guang’anmen Hospital ,China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences ,Bejing ,China
Hua, Baojin;
Affiliation
Department of Toxicology and Cancer Biology ,College of Medicine ,University of Kentucky ,Lexington ,KY ,United States
Yang, Hsin-Sheng

Platycodin D, a triterpenoid monomer, has been shown to possess an anti-tumor effect on various types of cancer. Although Platycodin D has been reported to suppress tumorigenesis, the detailed underlying mechanism remains elusive. Platycodin D treatment significantly reduced the cell viability, decreased the number of colonies, impaired the mitochondrial function, and induced apoptosis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. To understand the mechanism by which platycodin D induces apoptosis, the expression levels of apoptosis-related proteins were examined, and we found that the expression of PUMA (p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis) was upregulated upon platycodin D treatment. Knockdown of PUMA resulted in attenuation of platycodin D-induced apoptosis, indicating that PUMA up-regulation is essential for platycodin D to induce apoptosis. The induction of PUMA expression by platycodin D treatment was through activation of AP-1 since mutation of AP-1 binding site in the PUMA promoter abolished the PUMA promoter activity. In addition, the chromatin immunoprecipitation further demonstrated that platycodin D promoted AP-1 binding to PUMA promoter. Moreover, knockdown of JNK1, but not JNK2, significantly abolished the phosphorylation of c-Jun at Ser63 (a component of AP-1), decreased the platycodin D-induced expression of PUMA and cleaved caspase 3, indicating that platycodin D inhibits JNK1/AP-1 signaling pathway. Furthermore, immunohistochemical staining studies showed that tumors from the mice treated with platycodin D activated JNK by translocation of JNK into nuclei, increased phosphorylation of JNK and c-Jun at Ser63 in nuclei, and boosted the PUMA expression. Taken together, our in vitro and in vivo data revealed a novel mechanism by which platycodin D up-regulates PUMA to induce apoptosis through JNK1/AP-1 axis in NSCLC.

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License Holder: Copyright © 2022 Chen, Wang, Ming, Zheng, Hua and Yang.

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