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Data mining and safety analysis of BTK inhibitors: A pharmacovigilance investigation based on the FAERS database

Affiliation
Department of Pharmacy ,The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University ,Nanchang ,China
Wan, Qing;
Affiliation
Department of Chemotherapy ,Jiangxi Cancer Hospital ,Nanchang ,China
Li, Qiang;
Affiliation
Department of Pharmacy ,The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University ,Nanchang ,China
Lai, Xin;
Affiliation
Department of Pharmacy ,The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University ,Nanchang ,China
Xu, Tiantian;
Affiliation
Department of Pharmacy ,The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University ,Nanchang ,China
Hu, Jinfang;
Affiliation
Department of Pharmacy ,The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University ,Nanchang ,China
Peng, Hongwei

Objective: The introduction of Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitors was a milestone in the treatment of B-cell malignancies in recent years owing to its desired efficacy against chronic lymphocytic leukaemia and small cell lymphocytic lymphoma. However, safety issues have hindered its application in clinical practice. The current study aimed to explore the safety warning signals of BTK inhibitors in a real-world setting using the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) to provide reference for clinical rational drug use. Methods: Owing to the short marketing time of other drugs (zanbrutinib and orelabrutinib), we only analysed ibrutinib and acalabrutinib in this study. All data were obtained from the FAERS database from January 2004 to December 2021. Disproportionality analysis and Bayesian analysis were utilised to detect and assess the adverse event (AE) signals of BTK inhibitors. Results: In total, 43,429 reports of ibrutinib were extracted and 1527 AEs were identified, whereas 1742 reports of acalabrutinib were extracted and 220 AEs were identified by disproportionality analysis and Bayesian analysis. Among reports, males were more prone to develop AEs (58.2% for males vs. 35.6% for females treated with ibrutinib, and 55.9% vs. 31.9%, respectively, for acalabrutinib), and more than 30% of patients that suffered from AEs were over 65 years of age. Subsequently, we investigated the top 20 preferred terms (PTs) associated with the signal strength of ibrutinib and acalabrutinib, and our results identified 25 (13 vs. 12, respectively) novel risk signals. Among the top 20 PTs related to death reports, the terms infectious, pneumonia, pleural effusion, fall, asthenia, diarrhoea, and fatigue were all ranked high for these two BTK inhibitors. Further, cardiac disorders were also an important cause of death with ibrutinib. Conclusion: Patients treated with ibrutinib were more prone to develop AEs than those treated with acalabrutinib. Importantly, infection-related adverse reactions, such as pneumonia and pleural effusion, were the most common risk signals related to high mortality associated with both BTK inhibitors, especially in elderly patients. Moreover, cardiovascular-related adverse reactions, such as atrial fibrillation and cardiac failure, were fatal AEs associated with ibrutinib. Our results provide a rationale for physicians to choose suitable BTK inhibitors for different patients and provide appropriate monitoring to achieve safer therapy and longer survival.

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License Holder: Copyright © 2022 Wan, Li, Lai, Xu, Hu and Peng.

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