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Nanodelivery of antiretroviral drugs to nervous tissues

Affiliation
Discipline of Clinical Anatomy ,School of Laboratory Medicine and Medical Sciences ,Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine ,University of KwaZulu-Natal ,Durban ,South Africa
Lawal, Sodiq Kolawole;
Affiliation
Discipline of Clinical Anatomy ,School of Laboratory Medicine and Medical Sciences ,Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine ,University of KwaZulu-Natal ,Durban ,South Africa
Olojede, Samuel Oluwaseun;
Affiliation
Department of Physiology ,School of Laboratory Medicine and Medical Sciences ,Westville Campus ,University of KwaZulu-Natal ,Durban ,South Africa
Faborode, Oluwaseun Samuel;
Affiliation
Discipline of Clinical Anatomy ,School of Laboratory Medicine and Medical Sciences ,Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine ,University of KwaZulu-Natal ,Durban ,South Africa
Aladeyelu, Okikioluwa Stephen;
Affiliation
Discipline of Clinical Anatomy ,School of Laboratory Medicine and Medical Sciences ,Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine ,University of KwaZulu-Natal ,Durban ,South Africa
Matshipi, Matome Nadab;
Affiliation
Department of Physiology ,School of Medicine and Pharmacy ,College of Medicine and Health Sciences ,University of Rwanda ,Huye ,Rwanda
Sulaiman, Sheu Oluwadare;
Affiliation
Discipline of Clinical Anatomy ,School of Laboratory Medicine and Medical Sciences ,Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine ,University of KwaZulu-Natal ,Durban ,South Africa
Naidu, Edwin Coleridge Stephen;
Affiliation
Discipline of Clinical Anatomy ,School of Laboratory Medicine and Medical Sciences ,Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine ,University of KwaZulu-Natal ,Durban ,South Africa
Rennie, Carmen Olivia;
Affiliation
Department of Human, Biological and Translational Medical Sciences ,School of Medicine ,Hage Geingob Campus ,University of Namibia ,Windhoek ,Namibia
Azu, Onyemaechi Okpara

Despite the development of effective combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), the neurocognitive impairments associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remain challenging. The presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCFB) impedes the adequate penetration of certain antiretroviral drugs into the brain. In addition, reports have shown that some antiretroviral drugs cause neurotoxicity resulting from their interaction with nervous tissues due to long-term systemic exposure. Therefore, the research into the effective therapeutic modality that would cater for the HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) and ART toxicity is now receiving broad research attention. Thus, this review explores the latest information in managing HAND using a nanoparticle drug delivery system (NDDS). We discussed the neurotoxicity profile of various approved ART. Also, we explained the applications of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in medicine, their different synthesis methods and their interaction with nervous tissues. Lastly, while proposing AgNPs as useful nanoparticles in properly delivering ART to enhance effectiveness and minimize neurocognitive disorders, we hypothesize that the perceived toxicity of AgNPs could be minimized by taking appropriate precautions. One such precaution is using appropriate reducing and stabilizing agents such as trisodium citrate to reduce silver ion Ag + to ground state Ag 0 during the synthesis. Also, the usage of medium-sized, spherical-shaped AgNPs is encouraged in AgNPs-based drug delivery to the brain due to their ability to deliver therapeutic agents across BBB. In addition, characterization and functionalization of the synthesized AgNPs are required during the drug delivery approach. Putting all these factors in place would minimize toxicity and enhance the usage of AgNPs in delivering therapeutic agents across the BBB to the targeted brain tissue and could cater for the HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders and neurotoxic effects of antiretroviral drugs (ARDs).

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License Holder: Copyright © 2022 Lawal, Olojede, Faborode, Aladeyelu, Matshipi, Sulaiman, Naidu, Rennie and Azu.

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