The efficiency and safety of Shengxuening tablet on treating and preventing iron deficiency anemia: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Background: Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is a public health problem worldwide. Shengxuening Tablet (SXN) has been used for the treatment of various types of anemia, attaining high efficacy. Objective: To evaluate the safety of SXN as well as its preventive and therapeutic efficacy against IDA across different population groups. Methods: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, the China Knowledge Network, the China Biomedical Literature Database, the Wanfang Data Knowledge Service Platform, and the China Science and Technology Journal Database was searched for relevant clinical trials through June 2022 and a systematic review and meta-analysis of the identified studies was undertaken. Results: A total of 39 trials involving 4,562 cases were included in the meta-analysis. The total efficiency of SXN was superior than the control group in improving red blood cell (RBC) count [SMD = 1.31, 95% CI (0.7, 1.91), p < 0.0001], hemoglobin (Hb) [SMD = 1.11, 95% CI (0.75, 1.46), p < 0.00001], mean corpuscular volume (MCV) [SMD = 0.5, 95% CI (0.33, 0.68), p < 0.00001], total serum iron (SI) levels [SMD = 1.87, 95% CI (1.3, 2.44), p < 0.00001], and transferrin saturation (TSAT) levels [SMD = 2.07, 95% CI (1.86, 2.27), p < 0.00001]. Besides, the total effects of SXN to improve mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) [SMD = 0.12, 95% CI (−0.16, 0.4), p = 0.41], mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) [SMD = 0.03, 95% CI (−0.18, 0.24), p = 0.77], hematocrit (HCT) [SMD = 0.65, 95% CI (−0.25, 1.55), p = 0.16], and serum ferritin (SF) levels [SMD = 0.59, 95% CI (−0.67, 1.85), p = 0.36] and reduce the total iron binding capacity (TIBC) [SMD = 0.34, 95% CI (−0.07, 0.74), p = 0.1] was comparable to that of iron supplementation. SXN significantly raised the total effective rates of IDA [risk ratio (RR) = 1.06, 95% CI (1.02, 1.09), p = 0.0005] and was associated with fewer adverse events [RR = 0.24, 95% CI (0.18, 0.31), p < 0.00001], fewer adverse pregnancy outcomes [RR = 0.34, 95% CI (0.2, 0.57), p < 0.0001], and lower anemia recurrence rates during pregnancy [RR = 0.29, 95% CI (0.1, 0.84), p = 0.02]. Regarding prevention, the effects of SXN to maintain the RBC count, Hb level and other IDA-related parameters were comparable to that of control group and SXN reduced the risk of IDA incidence during pregnancy. Conclusion: SXN demonstrated promising efficacy in the treatment and prevention of IDA and outperformed routine iron formulations in terms of safety, thus rendering SXN a reliable treatment option for IDA. Systematic Review Registration: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/ , identifier: CRD42022353247.