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Psidium guajava L. An Incalculable but Underexplored Food Crop: Its Phytochemistry, Ethnopharmacology, and Industrial Applications

ORCID
0000-0002-5777-6112
Affiliation
Department of Chemistry, Division of Science and Technology, University of Education, Lahore 54000, Pakistan
Tousif, Muhammad Imran;
Affiliation
Department of Chemistry, Govt. Sadiq College Women University Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur 63100, Pakistan
Nazir, Mamona;
Affiliation
Division of Organic Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Baghdad-ul-Jadeed Campus, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur 63100, Pakistan
Saleem, Muhammad;
ORCID
0000-0002-2051-2922
Affiliation
Dr. Panjwani Center for Molecular Medicine and Drug Research, International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270, Pakistan
Tauseef, Saba;
ORCID
0000-0002-3270-4227
Affiliation
Department of Chemistry, Government College Women University Faisalabad, Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan
Shafiq, Nusrat;
Affiliation
Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur 63100, Pakistan
Hassan, Laiba;
ORCID
0000-0002-8654-8127
Affiliation
Department of Bioorganic Chemistry, Leibniz Institute of Plant Biochemistry, Weinberg 3, D-06120 Halle, Germany or
Hussian, Hidayat;
ORCID
0000-0002-8857-2091
Affiliation
Department of Pharmacy, University of Naples Federico II, Via D. Montesano 49, 80131 Naples, Italy
Montesano, Domenico;
ORCID
0000-0001-5191-7669
Affiliation
Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, Via Cintia, 4, 80126 Naples, Italy
Naviglio, Daniele;
ORCID
0000-0001-6548-7823
Affiliation
Department of Biology, Science Faculty, Selcuk University, Konya 42130, Turkey
Zengin, Gokhan;
Affiliation
Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, Philipa Fawcett Drive, Cambridge CB3 0AS, UK
Ahmad, Ishtiaq

Psidium guajava L. (guava) is a small tree known for its fruit flavor that is cultivated almost around the globe in tropical areas. Its fruit is amazingly rich in antioxidants, vitamin C, potassium, and dietary fiber. In different parts of the world, this plant holds a special place with respect to fruit and nutritional items. Pharmacological research has shown that this plant has more potential than just a fruit source; it also has beneficial effects against a variety of chronic diseases due to its rich nutritional and phytochemical profile. The primary goal of this document is to provide an updated overview of Psidium guajava L. and its bioactive secondary metabolites, as well as their availability for further study, with a focus on the health benefits and potential industrial applications. There have been several studies conducted on Psidium guajava L. in relation to its use in the pharmaceutical industry. However, its clinical efficacy and applications are still debatable. Therefore, in this review a detailed study with respect to phytochemistry of the plant through modern instruments such as GC and LC-MS has been discussed. The biological activities of secondary metabolites isolated from this plant have been extensively discussed. In order to perform long-term clinical trials to learn more about their effectiveness as drugs and applications for various health benefits, a structure activity relationship has been established. Based on the literature, it is concluded that this plant has a wide variety of biopharmaceutical applications. As a whole, this article calls for long-term clinical trials to obtain a greater understanding of how it can be used to treat different diseases.

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