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Electrolysis as a Universal Approach for Isolation of Diverse Chitin Scaffolds from Selected Marine Demosponges †

ORCID
0000-0002-3664-5463
Affiliation
Institute of Chemistry and Technical Electrochemistry, Poznan University of Technology, Berdychowo 4, 60-965 Poznan, Poland
Nowacki, Krzysztof;
ORCID
0000-0002-0398-5760
Affiliation
Institute of Chemistry and Technical Electrochemistry, Poznan University of Technology, Berdychowo 4, 60-965 Poznan, Poland
Galiński, Maciej;
Affiliation
Institute of Electronics and Sensor Materials, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Gustav-Zeuner Str. 3, 09599 Freiberg, Germany
Fursov, Andriy;
ORCID
0000-0003-2750-0884
Affiliation
Institute of Electronics and Sensor Materials, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Gustav-Zeuner Str. 3, 09599 Freiberg, Germany
Voronkina, Alona;
Affiliation
Department of Prosthetic Dentistry, Faculty of Medicine, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus of Technische Universität Dresden, Fetscherstraße 74, 01307 Dresden, Germany
Meissner, Heike;
Affiliation
Institute of Electronics and Sensor Materials, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Gustav-Zeuner Str. 3, 09599 Freiberg, Germany
Petrenko, Iaroslav;
Affiliation
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The University of Texas at Dallas, 800 W Campbell Rd, Richardson, TX 75080, USA
Stelling, Allison L.;
ORCID
0000-0003-4951-3555
Affiliation
Institute of Electronics and Sensor Materials, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Gustav-Zeuner Str. 3, 09599 Freiberg, Germany
Ehrlich, Hermann

Three-dimensional chitinous scaffolds often used in regenerative medicine, tissue engineering, biomimetics and technology are mostly isolated from marine organisms, such as marine sponges (Porifera). In this work, we report the results of the electrochemical isolation of the ready to use chitinous matrices from three species of verongiid demosponges ( Aplysina archeri , Ianthella basta and Suberea clavata ) as a perfect example of possible morphological and chemical dimorphism in the case of the marine chitin sources. The electrolysis of concentrated Na 2 SO 4 aqueous solution showed its superiority over the chemical chitin isolation method in terms of the treatment time reduction: only 5.5 h for A. archeri , 16.5 h for I. basta and 20 h for the S. clavata sample. Further investigation of the isolated scaffolds by digital microscopy and SEM showed that the electrolysis-supported isolation process obtains chitinous scaffolds with well-preserved spatial structure and it can be competitive to other alternative chitin isolation techniques that use external accelerating factors such as microwave irradiation or atmospheric plasma. Moreover, the infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) proved that with the applied electrochemical conditions, the transformation into chitosan does not take place.

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