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Comparison of Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profiles of Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. Isolated from Human and Poultry Samples in Georgia (Caucasus)

Affiliation
Faculty of Medicine, Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, 0179 Tbilisi, Georgia
Metreveli, Maia;
Affiliation
Department of Gastroenteric Infection Diseases, Tbilisi Children Infectious Diseases Clinical Hospital, 0171 Tbilisi, Georgia
Bulia, Salome;
Affiliation
National Center for Disease Control and Public Health, 0198 Tbilisi, Georgia
Tevzadze, Liana;
Affiliation
National Center for Disease Control and Public Health, 0198 Tbilisi, Georgia
Tsanava, Shota;
ORCID
0000-0003-4691-0483
Affiliation
National Reference Laboratory for, Department of Biological Safety, German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment, 12277 Berlin, Germany
Zarske, Michael;
Affiliation
National Reference Laboratory for, Department of Biological Safety, German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment, 12277 Berlin, Germany
Goenaga, Juan Cruz;
Affiliation
National Reference Laboratory for, Department of Biological Safety, German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment, 12277 Berlin, Germany
Preuß, Sandra;
Affiliation
Faculty of Medicine, European University, 0189 Tbilisi, Georgia
Lomidze, Giorgi;
Affiliation
European Commission, Directorate General for Health and Food Safety (DG-SANTE), 1049 Brussels, Belgium
Koulouris, Stylianos;
ORCID
0000-0002-5788-3487
Affiliation
Faculty of Medicine, Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, 0179 Tbilisi, Georgia
Imnadze, Paata;
ORCID
0000-0002-8338-717X
Affiliation
National Reference Laboratory for, Department of Biological Safety, German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment, 12277 Berlin, Germany
Stingl, Kerstin

Antimicrobial resistance remains a public health concern globally. This study presents antimicrobial resistance by microdilution and genetic diversity by the whole-genome sequencing of Campylobacter spp. from human and poultry samples isolated in Georgia in 2020/2021. The major species in poultry samples was C. coli , while C. jejuni was preferentially isolated from human samples. Resistance against tetracycline was highest (100%) in C. coli from industrial chicken and lowest in C. jejuni from clinical isolates (36%), while resistance against ciprofloxacin varied from 80% in C. jejuni from backyard chicken to 100% in C. jejuni and C. coli from industrial chicken. The point mutations in gyrA (T86I) and tet (O) genes were detected as resistance determinants for (fluoro-)quinolone or tetracycline resistance, respectively. Ertapenem resistance is still enigmatic. All isolates displayed sensitivity towards erythromycin, gentamicin and chloramphenicol. Multi-resistance was more frequently observed in C. coli than in C. jejuni , irrespective of the isolation matrix, and in chicken isolates compared to human isolates, independent of the Campylobacter species. The Georgian strains showed high variability of multi-locus sequence types (ST), including novel STs. This study provides the first antibiotic resistance data from Campylobacter spp. in Georgia and addresses the need for follow-up monitoring programs.

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