Comparison of Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profiles of Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. Isolated from Human and Poultry Samples in Georgia (Caucasus)
Antimicrobial resistance remains a public health concern globally. This study presents antimicrobial resistance by microdilution and genetic diversity by the whole-genome sequencing of Campylobacter spp. from human and poultry samples isolated in Georgia in 2020/2021. The major species in poultry samples was C. coli , while C. jejuni was preferentially isolated from human samples. Resistance against tetracycline was highest (100%) in C. coli from industrial chicken and lowest in C. jejuni from clinical isolates (36%), while resistance against ciprofloxacin varied from 80% in C. jejuni from backyard chicken to 100% in C. jejuni and C. coli from industrial chicken. The point mutations in gyrA (T86I) and tet (O) genes were detected as resistance determinants for (fluoro-)quinolone or tetracycline resistance, respectively. Ertapenem resistance is still enigmatic. All isolates displayed sensitivity towards erythromycin, gentamicin and chloramphenicol. Multi-resistance was more frequently observed in C. coli than in C. jejuni , irrespective of the isolation matrix, and in chicken isolates compared to human isolates, independent of the Campylobacter species. The Georgian strains showed high variability of multi-locus sequence types (ST), including novel STs. This study provides the first antibiotic resistance data from Campylobacter spp. in Georgia and addresses the need for follow-up monitoring programs.