Recovery of Polyphenols Using Pressurized Hot Water Extraction (PHWE) from Black Rosehip Followed by Encapsulation for Increased Bioaccessibility and Antioxidant Activity
In this work, pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE) of hydrophilic polyphenols from black rosehip fruit was maximized using response surface methodology for simultaneous optimization in terms of extraction yield, total antioxidant capacity, total (poly)phenols, catechin, total monomeric anthocyanins, and cyanidin-3- O -glucoside. Extraction parameters, including temperature (X1: 40–80 °C) and the solvent-to-solid ratio (X2: 10–40 mL/g), were investigated as independent variables. Experimentally obtained values were fitted to a second-order polynomial model, and optimal conditions were determined using multiple regression analysis and analysis of variance. The black rosehip extract (BRE) obtained at optimized PHWE conditions was further encapsulated in biopolymer-coated liposomes and spray dried to enhance its processing and digestive stability. After reconstitution, the fabricated particles had an average size of 247–380 nm and a zeta-potential of 15–45 mV. Moreover, encapsulation provided remarkable protection of the phenolics under in vitro gastrointestinal digestion conditions, resulting in up to a 5.6-fold more phenolics in the bioaccessible fraction, which also had 2.9–8.6-fold higher antioxidant activity compared to the nonencapsulated BRE. In conclusion, PHWE in combination with a biopolymer coating is a potent method for the production of stable and safe edible natural extracts for the delivery of (poly)phenolic compounds in food and dietary supplements.