Toxicological Assessment of Roasted Coffee Silver Skin (Testa of Coffea sp.) as Novel Food Ingredient
Roasted coffee silver skin is a coffee by-product, the uses of which are currently limited, e.g., as fertilizer, for energy production, or animal feed. Due to a low content of fat and carbohydrates combined with a high content of fiber, polyphenols and proteins, roasted silver skin is a valuable possible food ingredient. Potential applications include partial flour replacement in bakery products, as antioxidant and providing protein or fiber sources in sports or functional foods. As no relevant consumption of isolated silver skin occurred before 1997 in the European Union (EU), it was classified as a novel food in need of premarketing approval. Novel food applications must meet legal requirements for compositional and toxicological information. This review presents information on silver skin composition and toxicological studies. Several in vitro studies and subchronic in vivo studies are available with negative results, not suggesting a need for further studies on carcinogenic effects, reproduction, or chronic toxicity. All available studies so far concluded that no toxic effects of silver skin were found or are to be expected. For a novel food application in the EU, further in vitro studies on mutagenic potential may be needed to close a formal data gap.