Inhibition of TRIF-Dependent Inflammation Decelerates Afterload-Induced Myocardial Remodeling
Pressure-overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy represents one cause of the development of heart failure. The aim of this study is to characterize the influence of the TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF) during afterload-induced myocardial remodeling. After trans-aortic constriction (TAC), cardiac pressure overload leads to an early increase in MyD88- (Myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88) and TRIF-dependent cytokines. The maximum cytokine expression appeared within the first week and decreased to its control level within five weeks. While cardiomyocyte hypertrophy was comparable, the myocardial accumulation of the inflammatory cells was lower in TRIF −/− mice. At d7, TRIF deficiency reduced transcription factors and TRIF-dependent cytokines. Through the modulation of the TGF-β-signaling pathway and anti-fibrotic microRNAs, TRIF was involved in the development of interstitial fibrosis. The absence of TRIF was associated with a decreased expression of proapoptotic proteins. In echocardiography and working heart analyses, TRIF deficiency slowed left-ventricular wall thickening, myocardial hypertrophy, and reduces the ejection fraction. In summary, TRIF is an important adapter protein for the release of inflammatory cytokines and the accumulation of inflammatory cells in the early stage of maladaptive cardiac remodeling. TRIF is involved in the development of cardiac fibrosis by modulating inflammatory and fibrotic signal transduction pathways.